Important Git Commands

Some of the very basic git command which we use on a daily basis -

"$ git status" - To check the status of project(any file which needs to add or any commit is pending).

"$ git log" - To check all the logs for commits.

"$ git show - -summary" - To check last commit summary without file name.

"$ git show --name-only" - To check last commit with file path(& name).

"$ git add ." - To add any new files to the branch.

"$ git pull origin master" - To fetch all the latest updated code from master branch.

"$ git fetch origin" - To fetch all the created tags.

"$ git commit -m “enter comment here”" - To commit file changes.

"$ git push origin master" - To push changes from local commit to master branch.

"$ git update-index --assume-unchanged <path-to-file>" - To ignore some files to be tracked by git.

"$ clone" - To clone(or copy code form server to local) any project from server.

"$ diff HEAD^ HEAD" - Difference with the previous version of committed file.

"$ gitk or $ git show HEAD" - To check last file changes and open in editor.

"git reset --hard origin/repo_name" - This command reset the complete local code base with the last pulled/fetched code.

Note: I have seen people facing the problem of merging the code if two or more then two people are working on the same file. So if you have some code in a file which is already updated and committed by someone else and if you try to take pull you get following message - 
     "Please commit your changes or stash them"
     So here we need to use this command which creates a copy of your code changes in local temporary file and remove from the actual file - 
      $ git stash

     Again take a pull from the same repository -
     $ git pull origin brach/repo_name  // By using this command you will be fetching the updated code from main repository

     Now use this command to add your local changes(which was saved in the temporary file) into the updated code/file which we pulled in last step - 
     $ git stash pop
      That's it!!! Your local changes are merged with the updated coded which you pulled from server.

How to create resource,end point and use web service using Services module in Drupal?

As per my requirement, I was to fetch some data from third party and store into Drupal database.

For this, I created my own web service using Services module.
Here are steps for creating Service -

Note - I developed web service using Services 6.x module which is not in projects now in

So here steps are based on the Drupal6. 

1. First of all install services and all its dependent modules.

2. Go to the admin/build/services and click on Add to add end point.

3. Give respective name to the end point and path to endpoint for your service.(I would suggest to you keep same name for both).

4. In server drop down, you will found XML/RPC and REST by default.(Only if you have enabled these two modules from admin).

5. I will suggest you to use soap_server module.(Its easy to implement and test). Install soap_server and enable it. then select it form server drop down while adding end point. Leave other settings as it is.

6. Once you save your end point, you can see Resources, Server, Authentication etc links. Our main focus in Resources. There will be some default resources listed  but here we have to add our resource.

7. For adding resource, create a module. and add hook_services_resources - 


 * Implementation of hook_services_reources().


function hook_services_resources() {

  return array(

    // change your_resource_name

    'your_resource_name' => array(

    // change your_opration_name_under_resource

     'your_opration_name_under_resource' => array(

        'help' => 'Add help text here',

        'callback' => '_survey_custom_survey_data',     // change callback function

        'access callback' => '_survey_custom_survey_data_access',  // change access callback

        // Keep below settings as it is

        'access arguments append' => TRUE,

        'args' => array(


            'name' => 'input_xml',

            'type' => 'string',

            'description' => 'Data in XML Format',

            'source' => array('path' => '0'),

            'optional' => FALSE,








 * Implementation of Resource access callback().


function _survey_custom_survey_data_access() {

  return TRUE;



 * This is th main callback function which will recieve data when service gets called().

 * It will recieve data in json format and decode it to store in Drupal database.


function _survey_custom_survey_data($json_object) {

  $decoded_json_data = json_decode($json_object);

  return $decoded_json_data;



8. Next step is to select this resource for the particular end point. Click on Edit Resources in admin/build/services for the end point you want to add this resource. You can see your create resource will be appear in the resource list. Select it.

9. Its time to test the service. For this create one test.php file.This file you can create in some other server add below code -


    ini_set('display_errors', 'On');

 // Add full url of your domain, where you have create "your_resource_name" end point.

// We are concatenating $base_url with resource name which we have create using code to create wsdl.

    $client = new SoapClient("http://your-domain/your_resource_name?wsdl");

// Third party who will use this service, they need to create json object of data and pass like below

    $json_object ='[{"FieldName":"survey_id","FieldValue":"110"},{"FieldName":"survey_title","FieldValue":"Century Survey"}]';

 // Here you need to call method name and pass json object.

 // To get method name, you can copy and paste wsdl url in web browser and check the opration name. That will be your method name.

    $result = $client->module_name_soap_your_resource_name($json_object);

    print '<pre>';




10. This function _survey_custom_survey_data() will return decoded json of the data which we have recieved from service.

An Introduction to the Drupal Features Module

Most of the people get confused when they plan to use Drupal features module. I am giving few useful steps which will help you to create your own features. 

Features can be anything. A view, block, menus or content type etc.

You must be thinking that what is the actual use of features module. So I will a small example for your clarification.

For example you create a complex view in your local Drupal instance. Now you want to use the same view in development server or in some other server, than how will you do that? You will again create thw same complex view again in development server. Personally I would not suggest you to do that. Here comes a concept of features.


1. Once you are done with views creation than download features modules from here. Install and enable it. 
2. Go to the Structure->Features->Create Feature. 
3. Give a appropriate name for the view and select your view from drop down list.
4. Now at the end of page, click Download Feature. Once you download it, it will come as rar file which contains a module.
5. Next steps is to create one folder called features inside sites/all/modules folder so that you can differentiate  between your custom, contrib modules and features.
6. Paste your download feature inside sites/all/modules/features folder. Extract it and now this feature will be available in module list in admin. 
7. Enable this feature and it is ready to use.

Note- These above steps I explained for views example. These steps you can use for content type, blocks, menus etc.

How to create Multiple Forms in Drupal 7

After spending couple of hours finally I got solution to create multiple custom forms and display on single page with proper UI.
Follow the below steps to create the same-
1. First of all create a menu item in hook_menu() where you want to display forms.
function example_menu() {
  $items['user-login'] = array(
    'title' => 'Multiple Forms on Single Page',
    'page callback' => 'custom_salesforce_user_login_page',
    'access callback' => 'user_is_anonymous',
  return $items;

2. Second step is to write a callback function which is written in hook_menu(). Inside this callback, write all the forms which you want to display on one page.
function custom_salesforce_user_login_page() {
  $custom_salesforce_login_form = drupal_get_form('custom_salesforce_login_form');
  $custom_salesforce_update_form = drupal_get_form('custom_salesforce_update_form');
  $combine_form = array('arg1' => $custom_salesforce_login_form, 'arg2' => $custom_salesforce_update_form);
  $output = theme('custom_salesforce_login_and_update', $combine_form);
  return $output;

3. Now create these two forms.
First Form-
function custom_salesforce_login_form($form, &$form_state) {
  $form['rtc_registered_email'] = array(
    '#type' => 'textfield',
    '#required' => FALSE,
    '#title' => t('Registered Email'),
  $form['rtc_password'] = array(
    '#type' => 'password',
    '#required' => FALSE,
    '#title' => t('Password'),
  $form['rtc_submit'] = array(
    '#type' => 'submit',
    '#id' => 'salesforce_ret_couple_login',
    '#value' => t('Login'),
  return $form;

Second Form-
function custom_salesforce_update_form($form, &$form_state) {
  $form['fth_registered_email'] = array(
    '#type' => 'textfield',
    '#required' => FALSE,
    '#title' => t('Registered Email'),
  $form['fth_create_password'] = array(
    '#type' => 'password',
    '#required' => FALSE,
    '#title' => t('Password'),
  $form['fth_confirm_password'] = array(
    '#type' => 'password',
    '#required' => FALSE,
    '#title' => t('Confirm Password'),
  $form['fth_submit'] = array(
    '#type' => 'submit',
    '#id' => 'salesforce_fth_login',
    '#value' => t('Create Password'),
  return $form;

4. Next step is to create a hook_theme() function to theame these forms.
function custom_salesforce_theme() {
  return array(
 // this template is containing theme style for update form
    'custom_salesforce_update_form' => array(
      'template' => 'theme/custom_salesforce_update_form',
      'render element' => 'form',
 // this template is containing theme style for login form
    'custom_salesforce_login_form' => array(
      'template' => 'theme/custom_salesforce_login_form',
      'render element' => 'form',
 // this template is containing theme style for both forms
    'custom_salesforce_login_and_update' => array(
      'template' => 'theme/custom_salesforce_login_and_update',
      'arguments' => array('combine_form' => NULL),

Note- Don't forget to create three template files inside theme folder inside your module.
5. Next step to write template preprocessor functions to display individual fields in separate template files.
 * Implements Template Preprocessor For User Login().

function template_preprocess_custom_salesforce_login_form(&$variables) {
  $variables['rtc_registered_email'] = drupal_render($variables['form']['rtc_registered_email']);
  $variables['rtc_password'] = drupal_render($variables['form']['rtc_password']);
  $variables['rtc_submit_form'] = drupal_render_children($variables['form']);

Note:- Use these above variable names with "$" inside respective templates and give design as you want. For example use below html code for inside 
custom_salesforce_login_form template.
<div class="login-form-fields">
<?php print $rtc_registered_email; ?>
<div class="login-form-fields">
<?php print $rtc_password; ?>
<div class="login-form-fields">
<?php print $rtc_submit_form; ?>

Follow the same procedure inside custom_salesforce_update_form template for second form also.Just change the variable names as defined below.
 * Implements Template Preprocessor For Update User().

function template_preprocess_custom_salesforce_update_form(&$variables) {
  $variables['fth_registered_email'] = drupal_render($variables['form']['fth_registered_email']);
  $variables['fth_create_password'] = drupal_render($variables['form']['fth_create_password']);
  $variables['fth_confirm_password'] = drupal_render($variables['form']['fth_confirm_password']);
  $variables['fth_submit'] = drupal_render_children($variables['form']);

Now we need to display above two forms together on one page. For that just print these two below variables in custom_salesforce_login_and_update template. 
<div class="login-form-fields">
<?php print $arg_return_couple_form; ?>
<div class="login-form-fields">
<?php print $arg_first_time_login_form; ?>

 * Implements Template Preprocessor For Login and Update User().

function template_preprocess_
custom_salesforce_login_and_update(&$variables) {
  $variables['arg_return_couple_form'] = drupal_render($variables['arg1']);
  $variables['arg_first_time_login_form'] = drupal_render($variables['arg2']);

How to install Drupal using Drush command line?

Installing Drupal using web browser is very hectic process. Every time you want to install new Drupal instance, download the latest Drupal version, copy paste it inside your working directory, open the browser and do etc etc etc...

I have a better solution for this.

If you have installed Drush in your machine then follow the below steps. Otherwise go to my this post and first installed Drush after that continue with this post.

You just need to go to your working directory for example (c:/wamp/www Or c:/xampp/htdocs) using your drush command line interface. Then run these two commands one by one.

This command will download drupal 7 inside your working directory.
Note - Make sure your machine is connected with internet.
drush dl drupal-7.x 

In below command, change "YourMySQLUser" with your Mysql username, "RandomPassword" with your Mysql  password and "YourMySQLDatabase" with your database name.
Note - Make sure your create database before running this command.
drush site-install standard --account-name=admin --account-pass=admin --db-url=mysql://YourMySQLUser:RandomPassword@localhost/YourMySQLDatabase

That's All. Your Drupal installation is completed. You don't even need to open any web browser. Just run these two commands and enjoy :)

How to install drush command line utility on Windows?

Installing Drush command line on Windows is very easy but sometimes it gives these errors such as
"Drush is recognized as internal or external command" Or "Php is not recognized by Drush"

In this situation please follow these steps to setup Drush perfectly on your Machine.

Step 1-
Download the drush from here, unzip it and copy paste it in c drive.

Step 2-
Install the following software's in default c: drive:-
gzip-1.3.12-1-setup(from here)
libarchive-2.4.12-1-setup(from here)
tar-1.13-1-bin(from here)
wget-1.11.4-1-setup(from here)

Step 3-
Download Drush Installer msi file from here
and Install.

Step 4-
Set the environment variable for drush and php location.
1. Go to my computer->Properties->Advanced->Environment Variables.
2. Edit the existing path and paste the following code at the end
   For wamp server -

   For xampp server -
  ;C:\xampp\php;C:\drush;C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin;

Step 5-
Start the drush command line interface and type following command:-
>drush status

You following links to execute Drush commands.

How to implement Facebook Like funtionality in drupal?

There are two ways to implement Facebook likes functionality in your project.

1. First of all it requires a Facebook Url for which you want to display likes count.
    Example:-  //Here xyz could be anything.

2. If you want like count numbers with like button in your website then you need to get code from here. Provide the Url(Ex. and select other options as par your requirement.

3. Now Click get code.You will get 2 codes. First one is the Java-script code. You need to put this code in your html head tag.

4. The other code you need to put wherever you want to display like button and its count.

The requirement which I got to implement Facebook like functionality was bit different. I wanted to display only Facebook like count, and not to display like button. For this I have these solutions:-

1. You should use FQL(Facebook Query Language) here. Use the following code:- like_count from link_stat where
url = “”    // Change this Url

2. Pass this Url inside drupal_http_request() function and use json_decode() to get the value of like count. Then display it wherever you want.

3.You can get the like count by using this code also.  // This id should be your page id in Facebook

4. Pass this Url inside drupal_http_request() function and use json_decode() to get the value of like count. Then display it wherever you want.